Personal identity - Essay Example Basically, the personality identity of a person is totally constituent to the relation of brute physicality and either different bodies or the systems that sustain life although this should be at different time. The body theory states that we usually use human body criterion to identify ourselves time and again. Schick and Vaughn believed that in the case of person changing his or her body with another, it donâ€™t change but it remains to be the same person therefore it can be the personâ€™s body that makes through the change. There are two distinctive simple views of personality identity which are basically that are non-reductive and view of wholly reductive (Schick and Vaughn 234). The bodily substance theory of personality identity has a major perception of the concept of continuous existence of the human body. However, there is an argument about the identification of the human body which will still be similar for a given period of time. The human body goes through several changes as it grows from young to old. During this particular time, human body transforms by gaining and losing body matter thus they would not have the type of matter they had in the past. Thus, it would be a problem to have continues persistence of the human body and personal identity for a long period of time in the existence of a personâ€™s body. ... f the body especially the biological way of view of this account which looks similar with those of other approaches of biology but donâ€™t have common stand concerning the issue of personality identity The personâ€™s mind is said to constitute some immaterial substances. According to the mind concept of dualist, the materials are totally separated from the body. This concept thus states that incase a person is to be identified, then it should be with his or her mind but not his or her body. Ideally, if a person was to be identified using his or her mind which will be present over a given period of time in the absence of his or her body then personal identity can be based on the non-physical substance. On the other hand this will take into consideration the change in human body substance. However, the mind-body problem shows some concern with the given explanation and its relationship of the existence of minds and the process of mental in relation with the state or process of the body (Schick and Vaughn 289). Personal identity is based on consciousness but not on the substance of body or the soul. This is assertion is strongly fostered by John Locke who believes that we are the same people provided that we remain concuss about our specific past and be conscious of the future and be in a position of acting the same as we are acting in the present. According to Locke, if consciousness is what goes hand in hand with the human substance that makes up the person, then personal identity can only be found on the basis of acting repeatedly in relation to the human consciousness. As a result it implies that personal identity cannot be found in the substance identity but in the identity of consciousness. Thus, personal identity is not grounded on the personâ€™s soul but on a
In my opinion, Lady Macbeth is not the main driving force behind King Duncanâ€™s murder. The onus for this heinous deed rests with Macbeth himself, as he would have committed this treacherous act even if Lady Macbeth had not goaded him on. When the witches make their predictions, they told Macbeth that he would be Thane of Cawdor and then later King. I firmly believe that these predictions caused Macbeth to start thinking, and thus started a chain of events that ended up with Duncan being murdered. Macbethâ€™s reaction to the witchesâ€™ prophecy was one of fear and agitation. â€œGood sir, why do you start, and seem to fear things that do sound so fair?â€ says Banquo. I feel that Macbeth fears the prophecy because he had been thinking about becoming King before. Deep inside him, Macbeth had the ambition to become King, and this is exactly what the witches prophesized and it was as if they had read his mind. This must be the reason the witches had chosen Macbeth, and not Banquo or any other Thane in Scotland. The witchesâ€™ prophecy ignited his deep dark ambition, and he starts to think about how he will become King. However, the witches cannot be held responsible for Duncanâ€™s murder because Macbeth already did have the thought of being King before. The thought was already in Macbethâ€™s head, all the witches did was to act as a catalyst in making him pursue his ambition. Macbeth then becomes â€œrapt withalâ€ because, I feel, he starts thinking about the different ways he can become King. One of them was to murder Duncan himself, and this must have been the â€œhorrid imageâ€ Macbeth thinks about. Although this image scares him, it stills raises the question of whether Macbeth really is as noble and loyal a Thane as people say he is. If he were such a noble Thane, why would he think about killing his own King? One important point to mention here is that he is already thinking about killing King Duncan without any intervention of Lady Macbeth, who has not even been introduced into the play. However, Macbeth then decides that since he was made Thane of Cawdor without doing anything, he might become King without having to do much either (â€œwithout my stirâ€). Macbeth decides that if he becomes King it will be because of sheer good luck, not because he did something to try becoming King. I feel that this decision might have been made because he knows that he is one of the most powerful Thane in Scotland and so expects to be made Duncanâ€™s heir to the throne. However, King Duncan names the heir of his throne to be Malcolm, his elder son, who shall be known as the Prince of Cumberland. It is then that Macbeth decides that he must take some action if he ever hopes to be King. â€œThe Prince of Cumberland-that is a step, on which I must fall down, or else oâ€™erleap For in my way it lies. Stars hide your fires, Let no light see my black and deep desires,â€ says Macbeth. This is very much a contrast to the decision he had made of doing nothing against Duncan in the previous scene. His loyalty to his King looses out to his ambition. Lady Macbeth is then introduced into the play when Macbeth sends a letter to her, telling her about the strange events that happened that day, perhaps because he knew that his wife would be there to give him the strength he needed to do anything against the King. Lady Macbethâ€™s first reaction after reading the letter is that Macbeth is too kind and noble to do anything bad to become King. She knows that Macbeth has the ambition, but she also knows that he would be hesitant to do the evil things to achieve his ambitions. â€œArt not without ambition, but without the illness that should attend it,â€ she says. From the first meeting between Lady Macbeth and Macbeth, I can conclude that Lady Macbeth wants to be Queen more than Macbeth wants to be King. Such was her desperation to be Queen that Lady Macbeth was even prepared to call on the evil spirits to make her strong, and she wants to assume masculine qualities â€œunsex me hereâ€ so that she will not have any womanly weaknesses. She had spoken of pouring her â€œvalourâ€ into â€œMacbethâ€™s ear, and valour (according to Shakespearean audiencesâ€™) is a masculine quality. This would have shocked the audience in the Elizabethan era, because at that time they believed that the universe, the natural world and human society were ordered in one great chain or hierarchy. According to the great chain, women should be weak, and their husbands should rule all wives. However, in this scene, Lady Macbeth is shown to have a lot of mettle, and has a power over her husband. She tells him that people can see right through him. â€œYour face, my Thane, is a book where men May read strange mattersâ€. She then tells him to disguise his real thoughts and deceive people into believing something. â€œLook like thâ€™ innocent flower, But be the serpent underâ€™t.â€ Macbethâ€™s will to murder Duncan wavers because he starts to list the reasons for why he should not stray onto the path of evil. He fears judgment from God and his conscience will haunt him for his entire life. â€œBloody instructions, which being taught return To plague thâ€™ inventorâ€. He then says that he is Duncanâ€™s â€œkinsman and his subjectâ€ and should protect Duncan since he is his host, and not â€œbear the knife myself.â€ He says that Duncan is a good, kind and virtuous King and the only thing driving him towards Duncanâ€™s murder is his â€œvaulting ambition.â€ (Macbeth is shown here as being a tragic hero, an otherwise noble and virtuous character who falls due to one particular flaw, ambition. There are many other Shakespearean plays with tragic heroes, such as Othello, which tells a story of a man destroyed by jealousy.) When his wife arrives Macbeth tells her that he will not murder Duncan. (â€œWe will proceed no further in this businessâ€) This depicts Macbethâ€™s confused state of mind and his vacillation whether or not to assassinate Duncan. Here, Lady Macbeth shows her deep resolve and when she persuades and manipulates Macbeth into killing Duncan. She accuses him of cowardice and lack of love for her. â€œAnd live a coward in thine own esteem.â€ She claims that he was drunk when he promised her he would kill Duncan (although nowhere has the audience actually seen Macbeth promise this). She even says that she would dash the brains of her very own child if she had promised to, and so Macbeth should also be loyal to his promise. â€œHave plucked my nipple from his boneless gums, And dashed the brains out, had I sworn as you Have done thisâ€ These words from Lady Macbeth suggest that she is less moral than Macbeth and even evil. While she sees nothing wrong in Duncanâ€™s murder, Macbeth, despite his deep ambition, fears the consequences of his immoral deeds. Another reason for not killing Duncan was because he was afraid of getting caught, and not because he wished to remain loyal. Getting caught would jeopardize his chances of becoming King forever. â€œIf we should fail?â€ is what he asks Lady Macbeth. After Lady Macbeth formulates a plan, which impresses Macbeth and he says â€œBring forth men-children only.â€ Macbeth is convinced that this plan was foolproof, and he succumbs to his ambition and proceeds to murder Duncan. This reveals that he wanted to kill Duncan all along, and was just waiting for the right opportunity to present itself. The moment Lady Macbeth came up with a plan, he readily agreed. Lady Macbeth believed that this was the time to murder Duncan without getting caught, and this is what she made Macbeth believe. If Lady Macbeth had not been there Macbeth would has probably stuck to his decision of not killing Duncan at that time but he would have killed Duncan later. He says this in the end of the scene- â€œI am settled and bend up each corporal agent to this terrible feat.â€ He even starts making plans of what to do with the daggers after he murders Duncan- â€œWhen we mark with blood those sleepy two.â€ Fate was also playing its hand at making Macbeth feel that it was his destiny to kill Duncan when Macbeth starts hallucinating and sees a dagger, leading him to Duncanâ€™s room. (â€œIs this dagger which I see before me?â€) It shows that fate also played its role in trying to push Macbeth into murdering his King. Later, Act Two Scene Two we see Lady Macbeth waiting for Macbeth, who has left to murder Duncan. It is then when she says that she would have killed Duncan herself if he hadnâ€™t looked like her father sleeping. Lady Macbeth did not have the courage to kill someone who looked like her father. â€œHad he not resembled my father as he slept, I had doneâ€™t,â€ says Lady Macbeth. This tells us that she is not as brave and courageous as she made herself sound before, and still had some womanly weaknesses. This would have made Elizabethan audiences feel that although Lady Macbeth is evil and is stronger than her husband in some aspects, she is still the dutiful daughter she should be. This father-daughter relationship was considered very important at that time, and they were also very important in Shakespearean plays. There are many other examples of father daughter relationships in other plays written by Shakespeare, such as Othello and King Lear. When Macbeth arrives after killing Duncan he starts wavering again, he was worried about the consequences of him murdering murder. He was afraid of being judged by God for the evil he had done. Macbeth deeply regrets killing Duncan, and this was his immediate reaction, so he probably never wanted to. This is shown when Macbeth hears the Thanes knocking on Duncanâ€™s bedroom door- â€œWake Duncan with thy knocking. I would thou couldst.â€ There is also a marked contrast between the reaction of Lady Macbeth and Macbeth once they both have Duncanâ€™s blood on their hands. Macbeth starts going mad with guilt from the sight of the blood, while Lady Macbeth just tells him to wash it off, as if nothing happened. She said that â€œMy hands are of your colour; but I shame To wear a heart so white.â€ From the murder onwards all the devious plots and plans were made by Macbeth and not Lady Macbeth. He is the one who kills Banquo, because he knows that Banquo suspects him of foul play. (â€œTo be thus is nothing, But to be safely thus.â€). This shows that Macbeth is also quite evil and black hearted and will do anything to be King. From the murder onwards Macbeth is the real driving force and not Lady Macbeth. In conclusion the final responsibility for his actions rests with Macbeth himself. The witchesâ€™ predictions did stroke his ambition and Lady Macbeth egged him on to commit acts of perfidy. However Macbeth always had a choice. Witches had predicted that Banquoâ€™s sons would be Kings. Banquo chose to do nothing- leaving matters to fate. Macbeth became Thane of Cawdor by being a loyal subject and he could have chosen to remain so until his destiny ordained him King. He could have easily said that since he was destined to be King it would somehow happen anyway. Instead he chose to murder his King and arranged to kill his best friend. His ambition drives him to rule as a tyrant, and he chose to abandon his former path of duty and honour â€“ which ultimately leads to his downfall and tragic end. Â
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